Monday, April 14, 2008

Kosmologi Islam, Melayu pra-Islam dan Islam

7. Kosmologi Islam, Melayu, Melayu Hindia-Islam dan Melayu Islam

Tulisan berbahasa Melayu bersumberkan Islam yang tidak dipertikaikan lagi tertuanya setakat ini, yang mengandungi unsur-unsur ilmu falak dan sekaligus kosmologi, iaitu tentang teori ‘aradh (yang diterjemah oleh Inggeris sebagai theory of accident) dapat disaksikan dalam ‘Aqaid al-Nasafi karya terjemahan bertarikh 998H/1590M yang sekaligus dianggap manuskrip Melayu tertua (Lihat kupasan manuskrip ini oleh Al-Attas 1988). Lambatnya penterjemahan karya asal al-Nasafi ini (nama penuhnya ‘Umar Najm al-Din al-Nasafi yang meninggal 537H/1142M) berjudul ‘Aqa’id sahaja, jelas juga menunjukkan lamanya Melayu ketinggalan zaman segi ilmu warisan Islam ini. Bahkan Bukhari al-Jauhari 1623 dalam karyanya yang terkenal, Taj al-Salatin, juga hanya merujuk ‘Aqa’id ini sahaja apabila beliau membicarakan sedikit unsur astronomi dan secara tak langsungnya kosmologi Melayu Islam. Karya terjemahan yang tertua yang khusus berkenaan dengan kosmologi keIslaman sahaja ialah buku terjemahan/saduran Nur al-Din al-Raniri, berjudul dalam bahasa Arab, Badaa Khalqis Samaawaati wal Ardh (yang bermakna “Permulaan Penciptaan Langit dan Bumi”) bertarikh 1046H/1636M yang dikatakan ada di Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia (PNM). Ternyata yang ada di PNM ialah manuskrip MS781 Aaman Khalq al-Samaawaht al-Ardh, tetapi nama penuh yang tertulis di dalam manuskrip itu ialah Fasl awwal fi Bayaan maa Khalaq Allah Ta’ala wa Khalaq al-Samawat al-Ardh wama Ta’aluqu biaidi ‘Alaihi Fushuk . Fasal yg Pertama pada Menyatakan Peri yg Pertama Dijadikan Allah Ta’ala dan Peri Kejadian Tujuh Petala Langit dan Tujuh Petala Bumi dan Barang yg Ta‘aluk pada Keduanya dan Di Dalamnya Beberapa Fasal. Manuskrip ini ialah sebuah salinan yg dibuat di Kelantan tanpa tahun oleh al-Khatd ‘Abd al-Rahman. Di dapati kandungannya sama dengan Bab 1 daripada manuskrip buku Bustan al-Salatin karya agung Nur al-Din al-Raniri sekitar 1639M itu (yang telah ditranskripsi oleh Jelani Harun 1997 semasa beliau di sana dan diterbitkan oleh DBP 2004), walaupun beberapa ayat atau ungkapannya sudah diubah oleh penyalinnya.

Kami mentelaah kedua-dua manuskrip ini. Apa pun manuskrip ini boleh dianggap tulisan tertua dalam bahasa Melayu yang masih ada yang membicarakan Nur Muhammad sebagai asal mula kejadian alam ini. Manuskrip yang dikatakan mengandungi unsur kosmologi berasaskan Nur Muhammad ini yang diketahui sah wujudnya dalam bahasa Arab ialah kitab/manuskrip Bahr al-Lahut karya ‘Abdullah al-‘Arif abad ke-12M dan datang berdakwah di Acih sehingga kitab itu diterjemah ke dalam bahasa Melayu di sekitar abad ke-15M salinan manuskripnya dan huraiannya ada dalam Mahayudin (2000). Ramailah yang menganggap Bahr al-Lahut inilah manuskrip Melayu yang tertua sekurang-kurang dalam bidang tasawuf/sufi atau kosmologi Melayu Islam. Namun, isinya tentang kejadian alam semesta amatlah singkat dan kabur sekali dan tiadalah istilah Nur Muhammad.

Selain daripada itu kitab/manuskrip tentang tasawuf/sufi yang khusus membicarakan tentang alam juga boleh dianggap sebahagian daripada kosmologi orang-orang Islam atau Melayu Islam seperti yang tersebut di atas, umpamanya kitab-kitab berkenaan dengan alam yang terkandung dalam karya-karya yang dikelaskan sebagai ajaran “Martabat Lima” oleh Syeikh Wajih al-‘Alawi di India (abad ke-16M) menerusi Kitabnya Jawahir al-Khamsah yang dikembangkan oleh pengikutnya kepada “Martabat Tujuh” di Pascabima (Alam Melayu) ini pada abad yang sama adalah juga mewarnai kosmologi Hindia-Islam dan Melayu-Islam. Kitab jenis ini (Mengikut Abdul Rahman 1995, dan Internet 2) yang pertamanya di Pascabima ini ditulis oleh Syeikh Syamsuddin al-Sumaterani (meninggal 1690M) berjudul Jauhar al-Haqaeq yang dipengaruhi oleh kitab terawal berkenaan ajaran ini dari Hindia oleh Syeikh Muhamad al-Burhan(i)puri (meninggal 1029H/1619M) berjudul al-Tahfah ila Mursalah ila Roh al-Nabi (abad ke-16M) yang diterjemah kepada bahasa Jawa pada 1680 dan bahasa Inggeris 1965. Mengikut Abdulfatah (1992) unsur-unsur ajaran “Martabat Tujuh” ini sudah ada dalam kitab Asrara al-Arifin karya Hamzah Fansuri (seorang sarjana agung Melayu di Acih yang meninggal pada 1606M) lagi. Kitab-kitab kosmologi Melayu yang bercampur-aduk dengan kosmologi Hindu dan Islam ini (Abdul Rahman 1995) walaupun dianggap berupa ajaran sesat oleh sesetengah sarjana atau ulama (Abdulfatah 1992) dan oleh JAKIM (Internet 3), kedudukannya dalam dunia kosmologi Muslim sekurang-kurangnya samalah dengan ilmu nujum atau tanjim itu.

Sebelum Melayu memeluk Islam, ada pula kosmologi rumpun Melayu yang nampaknya berasal daripada Tamadun Hindia dengan kosmologi Hinduisme-Budhaisme tetapi banyak juga perbezaannya yang menunjukkan sekurang-kurang kosmologi Melayu purba itu bukanlah dari Hindia sepenuhnya. Kosmologi ini di-Islam-kan dengan menukar nama-nama kepada istilah-istilah Islam seperti tingkat alam semesta yang dikelaskan sebagai Alam Ghaib Lagi Ghaib (alam arwah atau roh), Alam Ghaib dan Alam Nyata. Alam Ghaib Lagi Ghaib itu berupa sebuah sfera yang bernama Mahameru (bermakna gunung besar) diistilahkan semula sebagai al-‘Arsyul ‘Azim; yang di dalamnya, Catur Mukha Brahma (bermakna Brahma bermuka empat, satu-satunya alam yang berbentuk kubusoid/kuboid) menjadi al-‘Arsyul Rahman; yang di dalamnya ada banyak alam termasuklah sebuah alam sfera bernama Meru yang diIslamkan kepada al-‘Arsyul Karim dan yang lebih terkenal lagi Kayangan kerana selalu muncul dalam hikayat-hikayat Melayu lama (iaitu alam roh para dewa yg diIslamkan kepada alam roh para nabi, rasul dan wali). Dalam Meru atau al-Arsyul Karim itulah ada sfera bernama Hansa yang diIslamkan kepada al-Kursiyul ‘Azim; yang mengandungi banyak alam yang dikelaskan sebagai Alam Nyata berbentuk sfera dan antaranyalah alam kita ini (alam jasmani/fizis) yang bernama Brahmanda dan diIslamkan sebagai Jabal Qaf. Brahmanda atau Jabal Qaf ini adanya tujuh petala bumi dengan neraka di langit ke-7, dan petala pertama itu ada 7 petala langit dengan petala langirt pertama itu ada alam yang dinamai Bima Saksi (kini istilah ini diambil oleh sarjana Melayu moden sebagai istilah galaksi kita yang mengandungi sistem suria). Perincian model ini dalam bentuk sfera dan toroid (keria) dipaparkan dan dihuraikan dalam Shaharir (1987/2000). Kosmologi ini tidak menyentuh asal-usul kejadian alam ini. Apa pun model alam Melayu purba berupa Budhaisme-Islam ini berupa cubaan pengIslaman yang pertama yang kemudiannya ternyata diabaikan dan digantikan dengan model baru lagi seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini. Apa pun jika dibandingkan alam semesta Melayu purba ini dengan alam semesta Hindu atau Budhais keaslian alam semesta Melayu itu agak terserlah juga. Alam semesta Hindu dan Budhais (dikenali sebagai Brahmanda) terdapat 7 alam atas dan tujuh alam bawah tetapi dengan nama-nama yang berbeza. Tujuh alam atas Hindu ialah Satyam (syorga tertinggi), Tapah, Janah, Mahah, dan Bhuh atau Prthvi (Bumi); manakala tujuh alam bawah ialah tala: Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Rasatala, Talatala, Mahatala dan Patala (paling bawah). (Internet 4). Bagi alam semesta Budhais secara amnya diistilahkan sebagai loka, iaitu sapta urdhvaloka untuk 7 alam semesta atas dan sapta adhloka untuk 7 alam semesta bawah dan kesemuanya membentuk 14 cakra dan alam semesta inilah yang dikenali sebagai Brahmanda. (Istilah ini diambil dalam kosmologi Melayu purba itu tetapi dengan makna yang lain pula). Istilah loka menjadi “loga” dalam bahasa Melayu untuk ungkapan syorg-loga sahaja yang menunjukkan tiada penghayatan kosmologi Budhais ini dalam kosmologi Melayu. Alam atas itu ialah Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka dan Satyaloka (syorga tertinggi). Alam bawah pula ialah secara keseluruhannya dikenali sebagai Naraka atau Patala yang terdiri drp (mengikut tertib ketinggiannya) Put, Avichi, Samhata, Tamisra, Rijisha, Kudmala and Kakola (naraka terendah?). Lagi sekali tiada konsep naraka dalam kosmologi Melayu Purba itu. (Internet 5).

Ada banyak versi alam semesta Hindu dan Budhais yang dikategorikan sebagai kosmologi reruang yang terdiri drp kosmologi menegak (tinggi-rendah, contohnya yang diperihalkan di atas) dan kosmologi sahasra (gugusan alam yang tidak diperihalkan di sini, selain daripada menyatakan kosmologi Melayu Purba itu ada unsur-unsur kosmologi ini dalam pembahagian Alam Ghaib Lagi Ghaib, Alam Ghaib dan Alam Nyata serta kandungannya itu); dan kategori satu lagi ialah kosmologi temporal (kewujudan alam yang langsung tiada dalam kosmologi Melayu purba itu). Berkenaan dengan Meru dalam kosmologi Melayu itu adalah berasal daripada kosmologi Budhais. Dalam kosmologi Budhais, Gunung Sumeru atau Meru ialah sebuah gunung besar dan tinggi yang menjadi pusat alam semesta yang dikelilingi oleh Matahari dan Bulan. Tapaknya dalam lautan yang luas dan dikelilingi oleh banjaran-banjaran gunung yang lebih kecil yang diselang-selikan dengan lautan yang lebih kecil. Ada tiga alam yang berada di Semru, iaitu dewa Trayastrimsa di puncaknya, dewa Caturmaharajikakayika di lerengnya, dan Asura di tapaknya dan di dalam lautan (inilah agaknya datang cerita Raja Suran dalam Sejarah Melayu itu), dan Catummaharajika (alam "Empat Raja Agung" di lereng bawah gunung Semeru itu dan setengahnya di udara sekeliling gunung itu. Mungkin istilah Catur Mukha Brahma dalam kosmologi Melayu purba itu datangnya dari istilah ini yang telah diubah-suainya. Empat raja ini ialah Virudhaka, Dhrtarastra, Virupakaa, dan pemimpinnya Vaisravana. Dewa yang menjaga Matahari dan Bulan juga dianggap sebaghagian drp alam ini, dan juga sida-sida 4 orang raja itu yang bernama secara kumpulannya Kumbhanda (Kenit), Gandharva (Pari-Pari), Naga dan Yaksas (Toyol?). Dalam kosmologi Melayu purba itu istilah Meru tentunya datang daripada kosmologi Budhais ini tetapi lagi sekali sudah diubah suai sehingga ada Mahameru itu. (Internet 6)

Pembicaraan ‘Uthman El-Muhammady (2004, 2005), tentang Nur Muhammad hanya sekadar pendedahan sejarah dan sumber-sumber penulisannya sahaja tanpa kupasannya yang kritis seperti mempersuakannya dengan teori astronomi dan kosmologi kini. Beliau hanya sekadar mengatakan bahawa semua unsur permulaan dalam fizik itu asalnya Nur Muhammad itu; dan segala teori sains Barat kini khsusnya astronomi itu “bila benar pada pengamatan ilmiah yang mentaati syarat-syaratnya boleh diterima” hingga kepada “pandangan Capra dalam Tao of Physics itu, maka pada kita itu tidak menjadi masalah.” Pernyataan sebegini bukan sahaja menjadikan Nur Muhammad ini pasif dan “teori pak sanggup” sehingga tafsiran sains moden (khususnya astronomi) berasaskan pandangan alam Taoisme pun kita sanggup didokongi oleh Nur Muhammad itu. Mungkin tersirat di sini bahawa ‘Uthman El-Muhammady juga sama seperti kebanyakan ahli sains Muslim ikhtisas, yang menganggap sains itu bebas nilai yang amat bertentangan dengan pendirian para pembina sains Islam yang antara lain mahu mengembalikan astronomi kepada roh ilmu falak itu. Pernyataan ‘Uthman tentang keserasian Nur Muhammad dengan atomisme (percaya kepada teori fizik atom yang mengandungi elektron, proton, quark dan sebagainya itu) itu bukan sahaja satu langkah pengadilan yang terburu-buru bahkan bertentangan dengan mazhab bukan atomisme dalam Islam (bukan mutakallimun) dan mazhab tetalisme (daripada tetali=tali-temali bagi menggantikan zarah) dalam fizik Barat setelah atomisme sudah mencapai tahap tepunya. Adakah kemudiannya akan dikatakan pula Nur Muhammad juga serasi dengan tetalisme?


Dalam Bab 1 daripada Bustan al-Salatin karya Nur al-Din al-Raniri 1040H (iaitu 1638M) terdapat perihal kejadian alam semesta dan alam ghaib. Beliau ada menyebut 12 buah sumber rujukannya tanpa nama pengarangnya dan tahunnya (seperti Kitab ‘Ajaa’ib al-Malakuut, Kitab al- Manzumi, Daqaa’iq al-Haqaa’iq, Mirshaad al-‘Ibaad) namun yang mana selain drp Kitab al- Manzumi yang menjadi sumber rujukannya tentang kejadian alam semesta ini tidaklah dinyatakan dan oleh itu patut menjadi penyelidikan kita selanjutnya. Kitab al-Manzumi itu sendiri pun patut menjadi kajian statusnya. Seperti yang selalu didengar dan disebut asal-mulanya segala kejadian ini ialah dari Nur Muhammad atau kadang-kadang disebut juga dalam karya Bustan al-Salatin ini sebagai Nyawa Muhammad atau Ruh Muhammad. Ada beberapa manuskrip (sekitar 80 buah seluruh perpustakaan Malaysia yang dikategorikan sebagai manuskrip tasawuf; lihat pengelasan sains manuskrip Melayu oleh Shaharir 2003) yang dijangka lebih baru drp Bustan al-Salatin itu yang dijangka sebahagian besarnya mengandungi kisah Nur Muhammad ini (yang telah ditelaah oleh penulis ini setakat ini ialah Manuskrip MS147 dengan judul Minha al-Showfy fi Bayan min Ahl al-Showfy bertarikh 1292H (sekitar 1914M)), dan Manuskrip MS1514 bertarikh 1343H (sekitar 1922M) tetapi arah perincian kedua-dua manuskrip ini ialah kepada Martabat Tujuh sedangkan al-Raniri langsung tidak menyebut Martabat Tujuh itu; manakala MS505 yang berupa terjemahan kitab Abdullah Ibn Thamud (sarjana zaman Nabi Muhamad masih hidup?) yang diterjemah sebagai “Kitab Seribu Masalah” (tanpa tahun dan tanpa nama penterjemahnya atau penyalinnya) ada menceritakan asal kejadian alam semesta yang hampir sama dengan yang di dalam Bustan al-Salatin itu (tetapi tiada istilah Martabat Tujuh atau Nur Muhammad). ‘Uthman El-Muhammady (2005) ada memaparkan sumber-sumber karya yang mengandungi kisah Nur Muhammad yang agak komprehensif dengan tujuan membuktikan kesahihan teori Nur Muhammad itu sahaja, bukan selok-belok kejadiannya dan perbandingan dengan teori kosmologi moden (Barat). Walau apa pun kisah Nur Muhammad ini (terutamanya yang membawa kepada kisah Martabat Tujuh) di anggap menjadi sebahagian daripada kosmologi Melayu seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Abdul Rahman (1995) dan penghukum terkenal, Abdulfatah (1992), yang mengelaskan Nur Muhammmad dan Martabat Tujuh itu satu daripada ajaran sesat yang perlu dihapuskan dan hukum ini diterima pakai oleh JAKIM (Internet 3).

Sebelum membicarakan asal kejadian alam semesta yang terkandung dalam Bustan al-Salatin itu, menarik juga disebut bahawa unsur asas (istilah yang dipakainya ialah “anasir” asas) bagi kejadian benda dalam ala mini yang disebut dalam manuskrip tersebut ialah tanah, air, api dan hawa (bermaksud angin atau udara sekarang) dan tiada unsur kelima akasa yang disebut pada awal penulisan ini. Unsur kelima ini ada dalam prasasti Sriwijaya-Sailendra (dalam bahasa Sanskrit) yang telah diterjemah oleh Muhamad Alinor (2006). Perhatikan tiada istilah Sanskrit yang diambil oleh sarjana Melayu sepadan dengan 4 unsur asasi itu, iaitu prthvi (tanah), ap (air), agni (api) dan vayu (menjadi “bayu” dalam bahasa Melayu untuk bergaya dalam sastera sahaja). Oleh itu kemungkinan besarnya pengelasan unsur-unsur asasi itu adalah ciptaan asli sarjana Melayu dahulu sepenuhnya tanpa pengaruh luarnya; dan oleh itu unsur kelima ini, yang ada dalam sains Hindia (Sanskrit) dan Tamadun Islam (dengan nama al-athir) belum diterima secara meluasnya oleh sarjana Melayu?

Sekarang, kami ingin menonjolkan kejadian Nur Muhammad dan dibandingkan dengan kosmologi Barat sekarang. Mengikut Bustan al-Salatin (yang dipetik pada Kitab al-Manzumi) Nur/Nyawa/Ruh Muhamad itu berasal daripada Cahaya Qudraht Zat Tuhan/Pancar Nur Hidayaht Tuhan ketika Tuhan berada pada ‘ama’ (yakni “ilmu Tuhan”) yang “tiada udara” di atas di bawahnya (istilah kini vakum) daripada ‘adam (yang juga diterjemah-tafsirnya sebagai “ketiadaan”) kepada wujud. Seterusnya al-Raniri menegaskan kejadian Nur Muhammad ini adalah tafsiran kepada Ayaht al-Quraan Suraht al-Shof (61), Ayaht 8, wallahu min hum nuurihi, yang al-Raniri menterjemahanya sebagai “Bermula Allah jua yang menyempurnakan cahaya-Nya” ; dan yang kami bilang , daripada 12 hadith (shohih katanya, dan banyak bertaraf hadith qudsy), dan sebuah kitab bernama Kitab al-Manzumi. Daripada Nur/Nyawa/Ruh Muhammad terbitnya tiga perkara (mekanismenya Tuhan “tilik muhibbaht” kpd Nur/Nyawa/Ruh Muhammad itu) lalu menjadi nyawa segala anbiya’ (dan seterusnya nyawa makhluk-makhluk lain bertingkat-tingkat mengikut hierarkinya termasuklah nyawa insan diikuti oleh nyawa malaikat, nyawa jin, nyawa syaitan, nyawa binatang dan akhirnya nyawa tumbuh-tumbuhan bukan secara evolusi tetapi secara “tilik muhibbaht”), menjadi juga sekalian alam, dan perkara ghaib seperti ‘aql, qalam, Loh dan lain-lain. Kejadian “sekalian alam” itu juga agak terperinci diperihalkan oleh al-Raniri. Beliau tetap menerima kejadian alam ini selama 6 hari (ayyam) yang ditegaskan di dalam al-Qur’aan itu (Ayaht 4, Suraht al-Sajdah (32): Allahd al-ladzy khalaq al-samaawaat al-ardh maa byna hduma fi sittataht al-ayyam…) yang jelas bukan menerusi evolusi (bertentangan dengan dalam kosmologi moden: evolusi selama antara 12 hingga 18 bilion tahun, walaupun kita mengambil unit hari akhirat 1 hari = 500 ribu tahun dunia sekarang!). Dalam Bustan al-Salatin oleh al-Raniri dan dalam manuskrip “Seribu Masalah” juga nampaknya ada fakta warisan Kristian yang menyatakan Tuhan menjadikan Bumi ini pada hari Ahad, malah seorang gerejawan abad ke-17M (Bishop Ussher) mendapatkan jam ciptaannya sekali, iaitu kononnya pukul 10.30 pagi Ahad, 23 Oktober 4004SM yang sentiasa menjadi bahan sindiran sarjana Barat!

Yang lebih menarik lagi dikatakannya segala kejadian alam tidak bernyawa ini adalah dalam masa 6 hari itu bertingkat-tingkat bermula dengan “keruh-keruh ampas segala nyawa” dari Nur Muhammad itu menjadi jawhar yang bernama Dzarraht al-Baydha’ (kami anggap transkripsian Jelani 1997 sebagai, Durrat al-Baida tidak tepat). Kemudian dengan ‘tilik hebat” Allah terhadapnya, maka jawhar ini hancur menjadi api dan air. Seterusnya terjadilah asap yang membentuk 7 petala langit dan “bekas” asap itu menjadi bumi, matahari, bulan dan segala “bintang”. Perincian sehingga terjadinya angin, laut, buih, bukit dan 7 petala bumi tidak perlu dibicarakan di sini. Peringkat kejadian Deguman Besar dan dan sebagainya itu (mengikut kosmologi Barat) dapat dibanding dengan peringkat kejadian Nur Muhamad itu sahaja. Jika kita mahu bersikap Buceilleis, kejadiaan Nur Muhammad itu jelas sama dengan perihal kosmologi quantum, iaitu bermula dengan vakum dan ganjatan vakum serta penerowongan (“tilik muhibbaht” itu). Lebih tepat lagi ialah bukan sama tetapi seanalog; dan yang lebih penting lagi teori kajadian al-Raniri alam semesta Melayu-Islam al-Raniri, alam ini tidaklah terbentuk menerusi evolusi dan fenomenon alam mengembang itu. Tentunya, kita perlu memeras otak lagi untuk membina teori sekukuh teori kosmologi quantum itu bagi menandinginya menerusi kajian kejadian “Nur Muhammad” ini.
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Lampiran 1

Karya berkenaan alam semesta inflasi (atawa TDB-TAMbang) dalam dasawarsa ini

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Lampiran 2

Karya Berkenaan Alam Semesta Berganjat/Berkitar dalam Dasawarsa ini


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Lampiran 3

Karya Berkenaan dengan Alam Semesta Statik/Einstein dalam Dasawarsa ini (1996-sekarang)

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Krauss L.M. & Scherree R.J. 2007. The Return of a Static Universe and the End of Cosmology. arXiv:0704.0221v2 [astro-ph]
Losic B. & Unruh W.G. 2005. On the initial value problem for second order scalar fluctuations in Einstein static Universe. Phys.Rev. D71: 044011
Lucas C. 1996.Big Bang or damp squib - An Alternative Cosmology
http:// www. calresco.org/cosmic.htm Open University Wigwam newsgroup. Kelih 25 Sept 2005
Shojai A. & F. Dadhich N. 2005. Static Einstein's Universe as a Quantum Solution of Causal Quantum Gravity. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A20: 2773-2780
Stepanov S.S. 2000. A time-space varying speed of light and the Hubble Law in static Universe. Phys.Rev. D62: 023507
Time M. A. 1999. Stationary Asymptotically Einstein Static Universe Solution. arXiv:gr-qc/9810060v3


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Lampiran 4

Karya Berkenaan dengan Alam Semesta Pegun dan Quasi-pegun dalam Dasawarsa ini (1996-sekarang)

Burbidge G., Hoyle F. & Narlikar J.V. 1999. A Different Approach to Cosmology. Physics Today, April 1999.
Deutsch S. 2001. Of Big Bangs and Small Fizzes (Expanded)* . http://www.siddeutsch.org/essay3.html
Versi lebih pendek muncul dlm IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, Nov/Dec 2001.
Farmer B.L. 1995. Universe Alternatives: Emerging Concepts of Size, Age, Structure, and Behavior, 2nd edition, Gilliland Printing,
Ford L.H. & Roman T.A. 2000. Negative Energy, Wormholes and Warp Drive. Scientific American, January 2000
Hoyle F., Burbidge G., & Narlikar, J. V. 1993. A quasi-steady state cosmological model with creation of matter. The Astrophysical Journal 410: 437-457
------------------------------------------------. 1994. The basic theory underlying the quasi-steady state cosmological model. Proc. R. Soc. A 448 :191
------------------------------------------------. 2000. A Different Approach to Cosmology. CUP

Kanipe J. 1995. The pillars of cosmology: a short history and assessment. Astrophys. And space sc. 227(1-2), may 1995
Krauss L.M. & Starkman G.D. 1999. The Fate of Life in the Universe. Scientific American, November 1999
Narlikar J.V. 2003.The quasi-steady-state cosmology .Chaos Solitons Fractals 16:469-477.
Vishwakarma R.G. & Narlikar J.V. 2005. QSSC re-examined for the newly discovered SNe Ia. International Journal of Modern Physics D. 14(2): 345-354
Wegener M. 2006. Kinematic Cosmology & a new "Steady State" Model of Continued Creation. AIP Conf.Proc. 822: 301-316. 1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference (CCC-1): Challenging Observations and the Quest for a New Picture of the Universe, Moncao, Portugal, 23-25 Jun 2005.

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Lampiran 5

Karya Berkenaan dengan Kritikan terhadap TDB atau TAMbang Selain drp Perspektif Agama: Model Alam Semesta Alternatif Selain drp Model Statik, Quasi-statik, dan Ciptaan/RBP.


Andrews T.B. 2006. Falsification of the expanding universe model. 1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference (CCC-1): Challenging Observations and the Quest for a New Picture of the Universe, Moncao, Portugal, 23-25 Jun 2005. Terbit dlm. AIP Conf. Proc.822:3-22,2006. Juga dlm Moncao 2005, Crisis in cosmology: 3-22
Arp H.C. 1998. Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science. Aperion
Antonopoulos C. 2003. A bang into nowhere. Comments on universe expansion theory. Apeiron 10(1): 40-68
Bennett C.L. 2006. Cosmology from start to finish Nature 440, 1126-1131
Best L.J. 2006. God and Fallacy in the Theory of Evolution. Trafford Publishing
Bjornson A. 2002.The Scientific Story of Creation. Addison Press
Borensztejn S. 2005. An universe without Big Bang. The temporalist model: an universe without expansion. http: // www. Freezer.com/perso/notbigbang/ . Kelih 20 Okt 2005
Carter J. 2000. The Other Theory of Physics. Absolute Motion, Incorporated
Coles P. 2005. The state of the Universe. Nature 433, Issue 7023: 248-256.
Dadhich N. 1997. Inhomogeneous imperfect fluid spherical models without Big-Bang singularity. J.Astrophys.Astron. 18: 343
Dart H.P. 1993. New Alternative to the Big Bang Theory . APEIRON 17, October 1993:1-4
Gentry R.V. 2003. Discovery of a major contradiction in Big Bang cosmology points to the new Cosmic Center universe model. CERN-EXT-2003-21, Mar 2003. 5pp
Gish D. 2007. The Big Bang Theory Collapses. Impact. Inst. For Creation Research. Dlm Internet
Gron O. & Elgaroy O. 2007. Is space expanding in the Friedmann universe models? American Journal of Physics . 75(2): 151-157
Johri V.B. 1997. Cosmogenesis without big bang. A New model of the early universe. IUCAA-02-97..
Ladik J.J. 2000. Did the universe evolve by chance? Remarks to Lee Smolin's book ''The life of the cosmos''. Jour. Of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM 500(1): 1-3
Lampton C. 1989. New Theories on the Birth of the Universe . Franklin Watts; Library Binding edition
Lerner E.J. 1991. The Big Bang Never Happened .Simon & Schuster
Lerner E.J. & Almeida Jose B. (Pnyut.). 2006. 1st Crisis in Cosmology Conference: CCC-1 (AIP Conference Proceedings) American Institute of Physics
Lesgourgues J. 2004. An overview of Cosmology. arXiv:astro-ph/0409426v1
Lucas C. 1996. Big Bang or damp squib - An Alternative Cosmology
http:// www. calresco.org/cosmic.htm Open University Wigwam newsgroup. Kelih 25 Sept 2005
Maccari A. 2006. Irreversible processes and a new model for the Universe
Chaos , Solitons & Fractals 28(4), May 2006, Pages 846-856
Maroto A.L. & Ramirez 2004. A Conceptual Tour About the Standard Cosmological Model. arXiv:astro-ph/0409280v1
Mercik A. & S. 2006. An origin of the universe: a model alternative to Big Bang. arXiv:physics/0604024v1 [physics.gen-ph]
Martin R.C. 1999. Astronomy on Trial. University Press of America
Mitchell W.C. 2002. Bye Bye Big Bang: Hello Reality. Cosmic Sense Books
Mohazzab M. & Lima J.A.S. 1999. Reply to remarks on a decrumpling model of the universe. International Journal of Modern Physics D. 8(6): 751-752
Pearson R.D. 1998. Revising Big Bang cosmology. Speculations in Sc. & Technol. 21(4): 269-276
Pecker J-C. & Narlikar J. (Pnyut.). 2006. Current Issues in Cosmology. CUP
Segal I.E. 1976. Mathematical Cosmology and Extragalactic Astronomy. AP
Skalsky V. 2000. The only non-contradictory model of universe. arXiv: astro-ph/0003192v4
Tegmark M. 2005. How did it all begin? arXiv:astro-ph/0508429v1
Tenorio L, Stark P.B. & Lineweaver C.H. 1999. Bigger uncertainties and the Big Bang. Inverse Problems 15(1): 329-341
Turner M.S. 1999. Cosmology Solved? Quite Possibly! Astron.Soc.Pac. 111: 264-273
Vishwakarma R.G. 2004. In Quest of a True Model of the Universe. arXiv:astro-ph/0404371v3
Vishwakarma. R.G. 1999. Comments on “Remark on a decrumpling model of the universe”. International Journal of Modern Physics D. 8(3): 395-397
Williams A. & Hartnett J. 2005. Dismantling the Big Bang . Master Books


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Lampiran 6

Karya TRBP dalam alaf ini
(sejak 2000 hingga Jun 2007)

Ackland T.S. 2004.The Story Of Creation As Told By Theology And By Science. Kessinger Publishing
Artiqas M., Glick T.F. & Martinez R.A.2006. Negotiating Darwin: The Vatican
Confronts Evolution, 1877--1902 The Johns Hopkins University
Ashton J.F. 2001. In Six Days : Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation. Master Books
Ashton J.F. & Westacott M. 2006. The Big Argument: Twenty-Four Scholars Explore How Science, Archaelogy, and Philosophy Have Proven the Existence of God Master Books
Ayala F.J. 2007. Darwin's Gift: To Science and Religion Joseph Henry Press
Baird R.M. & Rosenbaum S.E. (Pnyut.). 2007.Intelligent Design: Real Science or
Religion in Disguise Prometheus Books
Behe M.J., Dembski W.A. & Meyer S.C. (Pnyut.). 2000. Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe. Ignatius Press
Bendewald J. & Sherwin F. 2004. Evolution Shot Full of Holes Evidence Press
Beverly J.A. 2007. The God Solution: A Reply to The God Delusion. Nelson Reference
Bjornson A. 2002.The Scientific Story of Creation. Addison Press
Blanchard J. 2004. Has Science Got Rid of God? Evangelical Press
Braun E. 2005. At Issue Series - Creationism versus Evolution Greenhaven Press
Brockman J. (Pnyut.). 2006. Intelligent Thought: Science versus the Intelligent Design Movement. Random House
Broom N. 2001. How Blind Is the Watchmaker?: Nature's Design & the Limits of
Naturalistic Science. InterVarsity Press; 2nd edition
Brun R.B 1999. Does God Play Dice? A Response to Niels H. Gregersen, “The Idea of Creation and the Theory of Autopoietic Processes” . Zygon 34(1): 93-100
Brush N.2005. Limitations of Scientific Truth, The: Why Science Can't Answer Life's
Ultimate Questions Kregel Publications
Burgess L. 2006. God's Universe: A New Theory of the Universe. Trafford Publishing
Butchins A. 2002.The Numinous Legacy: Modern Cosmology and Religion. Albatross Press berbezanya konsep universe sekarang dng zaman nabi
Byl J. 2001. God and Cosmos: A Christian View of Time, Space, and the Universe.
Banner of Truth
Carlisle C. & Smith W.T. 2006. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Intelligent Design (Complete Idiot's Guide to) Alpha
Carrier R. 2005. Sense and Goodness Without God: A Defense of Metaphysical Naturalism AuthorHouse
Coleman S. & Carlin L. (Pnyut). 2004. The Cultures of Creationism: Anti-Evolution in English-Speaking Countries . Ashgate Publishing
Colling R.G. 2004.Random Designer: Created from Chaos to Connect with Creator
Browning Press
Colson C.W. & Pearcey N. 2001. Science and Evolution: Developing a Christian
Worldview of Science and Evolution Tyndale House Publishers
Dawkins R. 2006. The God Delusion. Houghton Mifflin
DeYoung D.B.2006. Pioneer Explorers of Intelligent Design: Scientists Who Made a Difference. BMH Books
Dembski W.A. 2002. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science & Theology. InterVarsity Press
Dembski W.A. 2004.The Design Revolution: Answering The Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design IVP Books
Dembski W.A. (Pnyut.). 2006. Darwin's Nemesis: Phillip Johnson And the Intelligent Design Movement. IVP Academic
Dembski & Ruse M. (Pnyut.). 2004. Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA. CUP
Dembski W.A. (Pnyut.). 2006. Darwin's Nemesis: Phillip Johnson And the Intelligent Design Movement. IVP Academic
Dennette D. 2006. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Viking Adult
Faulkner D. 2004.Universe by Design . Master Books
Gilbert S., Larson E.J. , Maienschein J., Ruse M. & Young R.M. 2007. The Panda's Black Box: Opening up the Intelligent Design Controversy The Johns Hopkins University Press
Gitt W.W. 2006. In the Beginning Was Information: A Scientist Explains the Incredible Design in Nature Master Books
Gleiser M. 2005.The Dancing Universe: From Creation Myths to the Big Bang Dartmouth College Press; New Ed edition
Gunn A.M. 2006. Intelligent Design And Fundamentalist Opposition to Evolution McFarland & Company
Hanegraff H. 2003. Fatal Flaws: What Evolutionists Don't Want You to Know. Thomas Nelson
Harris S. 2005. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. Reprint ed. W. W. Norton
Haught J.F. 2001. Responses to 101 Questions on God and Evolution Paulist Press
Herrmann R.A. 2002. Science Declares Our Universe IS Intelligently Designed. Xulon Press
Hedtke R. 2003. Great Evolution Hoax. ACW Press
Herrmann R.A. 2002. Science Declares Our Universe Is Intelligently Designed. Xulon Press
Holder R.D. 2004. God, The Multiverse, And Everything: Modern Cosmology And The Argument From Design. Ashgate Publishing
Hunter C.G. 2003. Darwins Proof: The Triumph of Religion over Science. Brazos Press
Jonathan S. 2004. Refuting Compromise: A Biblical and Scientific Refutation of “Progressive Creationist” (Billions of Years) as Popularised by Astronomer Hugh Ross. Master Books
Jeffrey G.R. 2003. Creation: Remarkable Evidence of God's Design WaterBrook Press
King M. 2007. The God Delusion Revisited. Lulu Enterprises, UK Ltd
Kitcher P. 2006.Living with Darwin: Evolution, Design, and the Future of Faith. OUP, USA
Klee R. 2002. The Revenge of Pythagoras: How a Mathematical Sharp Practice Undermines the Contemporary Design Argument in Astrophysical Cosmology. British Jour. For the Philosophy of Sc. 53(3): 331-354
Knapp S. 2000. How the Universe was Created and Our Purpose In It World Relief Network. Vedic perspective
Kolom A.L. 2005. On the Contrary, Science + Logic = Intelligent Design! (Science vs. the Bible: From Conflict to Confirmation) Sir Speedy
Lienesch M. 2007. In the Beginning: Fundamentalism, the Scopes Trial, and the Making of the Antievolution Movement . The University of North Carolina Press
Lisle J. 2006. Taking Back Astronomy: The Heavens Declare Creation Master Books
Logan K. 2005. Responding To The Challenge Of Evolution: Inside The Debate That Is Dividing Education. Victor
Malone B. 2001.Search for the Truth: Changing the World with the Evidence for Creation Search for the Truth Ministries Reveal? Harvest House Publishers
Manson N.A. 2003. God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science Routledge
Mcintyre M. 2000. Cosmology and creation: the spiritual significance of contemporary cosmology. Theological Studies. September 1, 2000. Vol 61(3): 592
Morris H.M. 2000. The Long War Against God: The History and Impact of the Creation/Evolution Conflict Master Books
Morris J.D. 2003. Is the Big Bang Biblical: And 99 Other Questions With John Morris. Master Books
Muncaster R.O. 2000.Creation vs. Evolution: What Do the Latest Scientific Discoveries . Harvest House Publishers
----------------------. 2003. Dismantling Evolution: Building the Case for Intelligent Design (Examine the Evidence). Harvest House Publishers
Nichols T.L. 2003. The Sacred Cosmos: Christian Faith and the Challenge of Naturalism. Brazos Press
O’Leary D. 2004. By Design or By Chance? The Growing Controversy on the Origins of Life in the Universe. Augsburg Books.
Pennock R.T. 2001.Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives. The MIT Press
Perloff J. 2002. The Case Against Darwin: Why the Evidence Should Be Examined. Refuge Books
Petto A.J. & Godfrey L.R. (Pnyut.). 2007. Scientists Confront Intelligent Design and Creationism W. W. Norton
Pickard S. & Ledger C. (Pnyut.). 2004. Creation and Complexity: Interdisciplinary Issues in Science and Religion ATF Press
Popper K. 2006. Reclaiming Science from Darwinism: A Clear Understanding of Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design Harvest House Publishers
Rael. 2006. Intelligent Design: Message from the Designers Nova Distribution
Rana F. & Ross H. 2005. Who Was Adam?: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man. Navpress Publishing Group
Roughgarden J. 2006. Evolution and Christian Faith: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist Island Press
Ross H. 2006. Creation As Science: A Testable Model Approach to End the Creation/evolution Wars. Navpress Publishing Group
--------. 2004. A Matter of Days: Resolving a Creation Controversy Navpress Publishing Group
--------. 2001. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries of the Century Reveal God . 3rd Exp Upd ed. Navpress Publishing Group
---------. 1999. Beyond the Cosmos: The Extra-Dimensionality of God : What Recent Discoveries in Astrophysics Reveal About the Glory and Love of God. 2nd Expand ed. Navpress Publishing Group
Santorum R. 2006. Darwin's Nemesis: Phillip Johnson And the Intelligent Design Movement. IVP Academic
Sarfati J. 1999. Refuting Evolution: A Handbook for Students, Parents, and Teachers Countering the Latest Arguments for Evolution. Master Books
Sarkar S.2007. Doubting Darwin?: Creationist Designs on Evolution Blackwell Publishing Limited
Shank N. 2003. God, the Devil, and Darwin: A Critique of Intelligent Design Theory. OUP,USA
------------.2005. The illusion of design. Skeptic: June 22, 12(2): 51
Shermer M. 2006. Why Darwin Matters: The Case Against Intelligent Design Times Books
Susskind L. 2005.The Cosmic Landscape: String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design Little, Brown and Company
Strobel L. 2005. The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God. New Ed edition. Zondervan
Thompson B. 2004. Scientific Case for Creation Apologetics Press, Inc.
Wells J. 2002. Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Why Much of What We Teach About Evolution is Wrong. Regnery Publishing, Inc
Wireland C. (Pnyut.). 2004.The Genesis Files: Meet 22 Modern Day Scientists Who Believe in a Six-Day Recent Creation. Master Books
Woodward T. 2003.Doubts About Darwin: A History of Intelligent Design. Baker Books
Woodward T. 2006. Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design Baker Books
Zeitlin S. 2000. Four Corners of the Sky: Creation Stories and Cosmologies from Around the World Henry Holt and Co. (BYR)
Zillmer H-J. 2003. Darwin's Mistake: Antediluvian Discoveries Prove Dinosaurs and Humans Co-Existed. Adventures Unlimited Press; 2Rev Ed edition

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.
Lampiran 7

Karya Kosmologi dan Agama dalam Dasawarsa Ini
(sejak 1996 hingga Jun 2007)

(Tidak termasuk aliran Ciptaisme atau Reka Bentuk Pintar)


Budhaisme/ Hinduisme/Jangisme/Tao/Zen
Buley M. 2006. Classical Samkhya And Yoga: The Metaphysics Of Experience Routledge
Capra F. 2004. The Tao of Physics: an Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism. 4th ed. Shambhala. Snt. 1 ialah 1978
Cremo M.A. 2003. Human Devolution: a Vedic alternative to Darwin's theory Torchlight Publishing
Dalai Lama. 2006.The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and
Spirituality Reprint ed. Broadway
Dalai Lama. 1993. MindScience: An East-West Dialogue. Wisdom Publications Darling D.J. 1996. Zen Physics: The Science of Death, the Logic of Reincarnation.
Harpercollins
Datta B. & Singh A.N. 2001. History of Hindu Mathematics ( two Vol. set) Bhartiya Kala Prakashan
Fisher C. 2007. Dismantling Discontent: Buddha's Way Through Darwin's World . Elite Books
Gangooly P. 1997 (Pnyut.).. The Surya Siddhanta: A Textbook of Hindu Astronomy. New Exd ed. South Asia Books
Goswami A. 2006. The Visionary Window: A Quantum Physicist's Guide to Enlightment. New Ed edition . Quest Books
Hayward J.W. & Varela F. J. 2001.Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama
on the Sciences of Mind . Shambhala; New Ed edition
Houshmand Z. 2004. The New Physics and Cosmology Dialogues with the Dalai Lama OUP, USA
Ingram P.O. t.t. On Buddhist-Christian dialogue with the natural sciences . http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:QpJwriMXxAYJ:www.ctr4process.org/publications/SeminarPapers/241Ingram.rtf+scienticism&hl=en&gl=my&ct=clnk&cd=14. Kelih 20 Mei 2006
Kak S. 2004. Architecture of Knowledge: Quantam Mechanics, Neuroscience, Computers and Consciousness. Centre for Studies in Civilizations
Kezwer G.P.2003. Meditation, Oneness and Physics: A Journey through Laboratories of Physics and Meditation. Lantern Books
Krishna G. 1999. The Dawn of a New Science. Institute for Consciousness Research
Lvengar T.R.R. & Tyengar T.R.R. 1997. Hinduism and Scientific Quest. D K Print World
Mansfield V. 2003. Synchronicity, Science, and Soul-Making. Open Court Publishing
Company
Marano H.E. 2004. A meeting of the minds: some of the world's best thinkers gathered at the MIT last fall to discuss how scientists and Buddhists can collaborate to understand the nature of reality. The meeting focused on neuroscience and psychology. Psychology Today. Jan-Feb.
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1175/is_1_37/ai_n6160227
Kelih 9 Mei 2006. Lihat juga ASASAINS 2005 terbitan ASASI
McFarlane T.J. (Pnyut.). 2002. Einstein and Buddha: The Parallel Sayings. Ulysses
Press, Seastone; Reprint edition
Mohan R.R. , Roy R.M., S.K. & R.R.M.1999. Vedic Physics. Golden Egg Pub.
Mudrit.1999. Science, Spirituality, and the Future: A Vision for the Twenty-first Century: Essays in Honour of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.
Pedersen o. 2007. The Two Books: Historical Notes on Some Interactions between Natural Science and Theology. Vertican Pubs.
Picard M. & Thuan T X. 2004. The Quantum and the Lotus: A Journey to the Frontiers
Where Science and Buddhism Meet. Reprint ed.Three Rivers Press
Picard M. & Thuan T X. 2004. The Quantum and the Lotus: A Journey to the Frontiers
Where Science and Buddhism Meet. Three Rivers Press; Reprint ed.
Powell R. 1996. Dialogues on Reality: An Exploration into the Nature of Our Ultimate Identity. North Atlantic Books
Ranganathananda S. 1996. Vedanta and Science, 2nd Ed. Ramakrishna Mission Inst of Culture Publ, Calcutta, India.
Roy R.R.M.1999. Vedic Physics. Golden Egg Publishing
Smith B.K. 2007. Classifying the Universe: The Ancient Indian Varna System and the Origins of Caste. OUP, USA
Thompson R.L. 2000. Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Illustrate ed.Govardhan Hill Pub
Wallace A.. 2003. Buddhism and Science. Columbia University Press/Motilal
Banarsidass
Wallace A. 2000. The Taboo of Subjectivity: Towards a New Science of Consciousness.
Oxford University Press, USA
Wallace B.A. 2003.Choosing Reality, : A Buddhist View of Physics and the Mind . Snow
Lion Publications; Subsequent edition
Wolston M. t.t. “Hinduisme and quantum mechanics”. Internet.. 16 Sept 2005.
Zukav G. 2001. The Dancing Wu Li Masters : An Overview of the New Physics.
4th ed. Harper & Collins. Snt. Pertamanya 1979.


Kristian/Nashara/Barat (selain drp TRBP)
Anderson V. 2002. Pragmatic Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Intersection of Human Interests . Zygon 37(1): 161-173
Ashton J.F. & Westacott M. 2006. The Big Argument: Twenty-Four Scholars Explore How Science, Archaelogy, and Philosophy Have Proven the Existence of God Master Books
Baker A.D. 2002. Theology and the Crisis in Darwinism. Modern Theology 18(2): 183-215
Barbour I.G. 2000. When Science Meets Religion: Enemies, Strangers, or Partners? HarperSanFrancisco
Barr S.M. 2006. Modern Physics and Ancient Faith. New Ed edition. University of Notre Dame Press
Barr S.M. 2007. Faith and quantum theory. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. March 1, 2007
Baumann T.L. 2002. God at the Speed of Light .R.E. Press. Association of Research & Enlig
Begley S. 1998. Science Finds God. Newsweek, July 20, pp. 46-51
Bendewald J. & Sherwin F. 2004. Evolution Shot Full of Holes Evidence Press
Birkett k. 2006. conscious objections: god and the consciousness debates. Zygon 41(2): 249-266(18)
Briski D. 2004. Impressive Deception: Creation Or Evolution-- You Decide. Ragged Edge Press
Butterfield J. 2000. Some worlds of quantum theory. CTNS-Vatican Conference
Byl J. 2001. God and Cosmos: A Christian View of Time, Space, and the Universe.
Banner of Truth
Carroll W.E. 1999. Aquinas and the Big Bang.(13th-century religious philosopher Thomas Aquinas). First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life November 1, 1999. Institute on Religion and Public Life
Clausen B.. 2000. Integrating Faith and learning in the Teaching of Physics. The 26th Annual Faith and Learning Seminar on Science and Religion held at the Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda, CA, July 16-28, 2000.
Colson C.W. & Pearcey N. 2001. Science and Evolution: Developing a Christian
Worldview of Science and Evolution Tyndale House Publishers
Cooper E.A. 2004. The Origin of The Universe. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress
Publishing
Crain S. D. 1997. Divine Action and the Natural Sciences. Zygon 32(3):423-432
Davies P. 2002. Membaca Pikiran Tuhan. Terj Drs. Hamzah, The Mind of God: The Scientific for
a Rational World. Jogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Davis E. B. 2000. Appreciating a Scientist-Theologian: Some Remarks on the Work of John Polkinghorne. Zygon 35(4): 971-976
DeLashmutt M.W. 2005. syncretism or correlation: teilhard and tillich's contrasting methodological approaches to science and theology. Zygon 40(3): 739-750
Dimery R. 1998. The best of both worlds: A study in complementarity of science and Christianity. Internet. “christianity and quantum mechanics”. http:// www. Dimery.com/articles/Both_worlds/both_worlds.html. 16 Sept 2005
Dowe P. 2005. Galileo, Darwin, and Hawking: the Interplay of Science, Reason, and Religion. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan. Lihat juga sorotan buku ini di
http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/reviews/galileodarwinhawking.htm
Durbin W.A. 2003. Negotiating The Boundaries of Science and Religion: The Conversion of Allan Sandage. Zygon 38(1): 71-84
Edson E. & Savage-Smith E. 2004. Medieval Views of the Cosmos Bodleian Library, University of Oxford
Elliott B. 2006. Science and Religion, the Continuing Conflict Book 2 Trafford Publishing
Falk D.R.2004. Coming to Peace With Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology. InterVarsity Press
Grünbaum A. 2000. A new critique of theological interpretations of physical cosmology . British Jour. For the Philosophy of Sc. 51(1): 1-43
Heinemann K. 2004. Expanding Perception. Word Association
Hodgon P.E. 2005. Science and Belief in the Nuclear Age Sapientia Press of Ave Maria University
Ilham Dilman, 1999. Free Will: An Historical and Philosophical Introduction. Routledge
Impey C. & Petry C. (Pnyut.). 2003. Science and Theology: Ruminations on The Cosmos. Vertican Pubs.
-----------------------------------. 2003. International Symposium on Astrophysics Research and on The Dialogue between Science and Religion. Vertican Pubs
Ingram P.O. t.t. On Buddhist-Christian dialogue with the natural sciences . http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:QpJwriMXxAYJ:www.ctr4process.org/publications/SeminarPapers/241Ingram.rtf+scienticism&hl=en&gl=my&ct=clnk&cd=14. Kelih 20 Mei 2006
Jackelen A. 2006. a relativistic eschatology: time, eternity, and eschatology in light of the physics of relativity . Zygon. 41(4): 955-974
Kaufman G.D. 2005. techno-secularism and “revealed religion”: some problems with caiazza's analysis . Zygon 40(2): 323-334
Lameter C. 2001. Yes, God can . A response to Nicolas Saunders article in Sept. 2000 ed. of
Zygon titled : Does God Cheat. http: // www.christ21.org/ papers/saunders1.htm.
Kelih 13 Sept. 2005
Lameter C.2006. Divine Action in the Framework of Scientific Thinking: From Quantum Theory to Divine Action. Christianity in the 21st Century
Larry A. Witham. 2006. Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists and Evolutionists in America. New Ed ed. OUP, USA
Lindberg D.C. & R.L.(Pnyut.). 2003. Numbers. When Science and Christianity Meet University of Chicago Press
Luoma T. 2002. The Impact of Theology on the Natural Sciences. Incarnation and Phys. 28-61
Malin S. 2001. Nature Loves to Hides: Quantum Physics and Reality. A Western Perspective. OUP
Mallary M. 2004.Our Improbable Universe: A Physicist Considers How We Got Here Thunder's Mouth Press
Murphy N. & Russell R.J. 1997. Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature: Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action. University of Notre Dame Press
Neuhauser R.G. 2004.The Cosmic Deity: Where Scientists and Theologians Fear to Tread. Mill Creek Publishers
Nowacki M.R. 2007. The Kalam Cosmological Argument for God. Prometheus Books
O’Murchu D. 2005. Quantum Theology, Revised Edition: Spiritual Implications of the New Physics. Crossroad Publishing Company; Rev Upd edition
Pannenberg W. 2005. Notes on the alleged conflict between religion and science
Zygon 40(3): 585-588
Pennock R.T. 2004. God and nature revisited - When Science and Christianity Meet Trend in Ecology and Evolution 19(1): 8-9
Peters T. & Bennett G. 2003. Bridging Science and Religion Augsburg Fortress Publishers
Polkinghorne J. 1996. The Faith of a Physicist: Reflections of a Bottom-Up Thinker. Minneapolis: Fortress Press
------------------. 2001. Faith, Science and Understanding Yale University Press
------------------. 2003. Belief in God in an Age of Science. New Ed ed. Yale University Press
------------------. 2006. Quarks, Chaos & Christianity, Revised and Updated: Questions to Science and Religion. Rev Upd edition. Crossroad
Powell C. 2003. God in the Equation : How Einstein Transformed Religion. Free Press; Reprint edition
Rahim Acar. 2005. Talking About God and Talking About Creation: Avicenna's and Thomas Aquinas' Positions Brill Academic Pub
Rosado C. t.t.What Is Spirituality? Memetics, Quantum Mechanics, and the Spiral of Spirituality. http://rosado.net/articles-qumetics.html
Russell P. 2003. From Science to God: A Physicist's Journey into the Mystery of Consciousness. New World Library
Russell R.J., Clayton P. , Wegter-Mcnelly K. &. Polkinghorne J. (Pnyut.). 2001. Quantum Mechanics. Vertican Pubs
Russell R.J., Murphy N. & Isham C.J. (Pnyut.). 1996. Quantum Cosmology and The Laws of Nature. 2nd rev. ed. Vertican Pubs. Cet pertamanya 1993.
Russel R.J., Murphy N. & Peacocke A.R. (Pnyut). 2000. Chaos and Complexity: Scientific Perspectives on Devine Action, Vatican City State: Vatican Observatory, and Berkeley: Centre for Theology and Natural Sciences.
2nd ed. University of Notre Dame Press 2006
Russell R.J. , Stoeger W.R. & Coyne S.J & G.V. (Pnyut.). 1997. Physics, Philosophy, and Theology: a Common Quest for Understanding,. 3rd ed. Vertican Pubs.

Saunders N.T. 2000. Does God cheat at dice? Devine action and quantum possibilities.
Zygon 35(3): 517-544
Saunders N. 2002. Devine Action & Modern Science. Cambridge: CUP
Seeskin K. 2006. Maimonides on the Origin of the World. New Exd ed. Cambridge University Press
Shvets A. 2004. Buddhism, Christianity, Quantum Mechanics and Dinosuar Quodlibet Journal 6(1): January - March 2004 . http:// www. Quodlibet.net
Sobosan J. 1999. Romancing the Universe: Theology, Science and Cosmology Eerdmans Pub Co
Stott P. 2005.Vital Questions. Reformation Christian Ministries
Strachan G. 2005. Bible's Hidden Cosmology. 2nd ed. Floris Books
Taylor B.B. 2000. Luminous Web: Essays on Science and Religion Cowley Publications
Tinker T. 2004. The Enlightenment and its discontents: Antinomies of Christianity, Islam and the calculative sciences. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Jour. 17(3): 442-475(34)
Tipler F.J. 2007. The Physics of Christianity Doubleday
Trevithick G. 2004. The Cosmic Puzzle: A Theory of Everything Quantum Spirituality Press
Von Stuckrad K. 2000. Jewish and christian astrology in late antiquity - a new approach
Numen 47(1): 1-40
Wheatley J.D. 2001. The Nature of Consciousness : The Structure of Reality: Theory of Everything Equation Revealed : Scientific Verification and Proof of Logic God Is Research Scientific Press
Zycinsk J. 1996. Metaphysics and Epistemology in Stephen Hawking’s Theory of the Creation of the Universe. Zygon 31(2): 269-284

Judaisme/Yahudi
Cantor G. 2005. Jewish Responses to Evolution. Quakers, Jews and Science, September 2005, pp. 321-346
Levi Y. 2006. Torah and Science . Feldheim
Orban I. 2003. A New Jewish World View. Rubin Mass Ltd
Reventlow H.G. & Hoffman Y. (Pnyut.). 2002. Creation in Jewish and Christian Tradition. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. Supplement Series, 319. Sheffield Academic Press
Rudavsky T.M. 2000. Time Matters: Time, Creation, and Cosmology in Medieval Jewish Philosophy. State University of New York Press
Samuelson N. M. 2002. Creation and the Symbiosis of Science and Judaism . Zygon 37(1): 137-142(6)
Seeskin K. 2006. Maimonides on the Origin of the World Cambridge University Press; New Ed edition
Silverman J. 2003. Comparing and contrasting quantum mysticism and Jewish mysticism. http://www. Commercialventva.com/~jeffs/CAQM.htm. snt. Pertamanya 1998. Kelih 29 Sept. 2005
Smith H. 2006. Let There Be Light: Modern Cosmology and Kabbalah: A New Conversation Between Science and Religion. New World Library

Islam
Al-Hayani F. A. 2005. Islam and science: contradiction or concordance
Zygon 40(3): 565-576
Akkach S. 2005. Cosmology And Architecture In Premodern Islam: An Architectural
Reading Of Mystical Ideas State University of New York Press
Baiquni A. 1997. Al Qur’an dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Kealaman. Yogyakarta: Pt.
Dana Bhakti Prima Yasa
Berggren J.L. 1997. Mathematics and Her Sisters in Medieval Islam: A Selective Review of Work Done from 1985 to 1995. Historia Mathematica 24(4): 407-440
Bilal Masud 2003. The big bang and creation of the universe in religious perspective.
http://www.hssrd.org/journal/spring2003/bigbangcreation.htm

Chittick W.C. 2007. Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul: The Pertinence of Islamic Cosmology in the Modern World. Oneworld Publications
Goldshani M. 2004. Issues in Islam and Science. Tehran: Inst. For Humanities and Cultural Studies---------------. 2001a. Causality in the Islamic Outlook and in Modern Physics. Studies in Science and Theology 8. Gregersen H. (Pnyut.) ESSSAT, Fall 2001 Boleh dicapai di http: // www. Science-islam.net/article. php3? id_article =500
Harun Y. 2005. The big bang echoes through the map of the galaxy. http: // www. harunyahya.com/article/70big_bang. Php. Kelih 3 Okt 2005
------------. t.t. Penciptaan Alam Semesta. Terj. drp Inggeris?, The Creation of the Universe.
yg diterj. drp Turki
------------. t.t. Kesempurnaan Penciptaan Atom. Terj. drp Inggeris? The Miracle in the Atom. yang diterj. drp Turki.
Hogendijk J.P. & Abdelhamid I. Sabra. 2003. The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives. The MIT Press
Ibrahim B. S. 2002/2005. Sufism and Quantum Physics. The American Muslim July 2005;
The Fountain Magazine. Issue 39 July - September 2002. Internet
“Sufism and quantum theory” 16 Sept 2005
--------------. t.t. Quantum theory and reality. Internet: Islam and quantum theory
http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_1_50/quantum_theory_and_reality.htm
16 Sept, 2005
Iqbal M. 2006. In the beginning: Islamic perspectives on cosmological origins—I, II. Islam & Science December 22, 2006. Vol 4(2): 93(20); June 22, 2006, Vol 4(1): 61
Lorentz T. 2000. Monism and the Sufi Tradition. Internet 9 Mei 2007
http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/axismundi/2000/monism_and_the.php
Nasr S.H. 2006. The question of cosmogenesis--the cosmos as a subject of scientific study. Islam & Science. June 22, 2006, Vol. 4(1): 43(17)
Shahidan b.R. 2004. Mekanik kuantum dan sufisme: satu perbandingan . Dlm Ummul Khair Salma Din et al. (Pyt.) 2004. Prosiding Sem Mengenai Jasa Prof. Shaharir Mohamad Zain. 3 Jun 2004. Pusat Pengajian sains Matematik, FST, UKM dan PERSAMA: 74-78
-----------------. 1999a. Mekanik Kuantum dan Sufisme. Asasains 1 & 2/1999, Jan-Ogos 1999: 12-14
-----------------. 1999b Al-Ghazali dan teori quantum. Dlm Mohd Yusof Hj. Othman et al.
(Pnyut). 1999. Siri Wacana Sejarah dan Falsafah Sains Jil 7: 85-96. K.Lumpur: DBP
Ümit Y. D. 2003. Al-Ghazālī and quantum physics: a comparative analysis of the seventeenth discussion of Tahāfut al-Falāsifa and quantum theory. Tesis Ph.D. Inst. of Islamic Studies McGill Univ.
Yaran C.S. 2003. Islamic Thought on the Existence of God: Contributions and Contrasts With Contemporary Western Philosophy of Religion. Council for Research in Values and Philosophy

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Lampiran 8

Karya tentang Keinsafan dalam MQ yang Terbit dalam Alaf ini

Baars B.J. , Banks W.P. & Newman J.B. (Pnyut.). 2003.Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. The MIT Press
Bierman D. 2003. Does Consciousness Collapse the Wave-Packet? Mind and Matter 1(1): 45-57(13)
Clarke C. 2007. The Role of Quantum Physics in the Theory of Subjective Consciousness. Mind and Matter 5(1): 45-81(37)
Clayton P. 2004. Mind and Emergence: From Quantum to Consciousness.OUP,USA
Clayton P. & Davies P. (Pnyut.). 2006. The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion. OUP,USA
Elitzur A., Doley S. & Kolenda N. (Pnyut.).2005. Quo Vadis Quantum Mechanics? Springer
Esfeld M. (2004) Quantum entanglement and a metaphysics of relations. Mimeo. Internet
Falk G.D. 2003.The Science of the Soul: On Consciousness and the Structure of Reality. Blue Dolphin Publishing
Freeman A. 2003. Consciousness: A Guide to the Debates ABC-CLIO
Gao S. (2004) Quantum collapse, consciousness and superluminal communication. Mimeo.Internet
Grifffin D.R. 2000. Unsnarling the World-Knot: Consciousness, Freedom, and the Mind-Body Problem. Berkeley
Kak S. 2004. Architecture of Knowledge: Quantam Mechanics, Neuroscience, Computers and Consciousness . Centre for Studies in Civilizations
Keen J. 2006. Consciousness, Intent, and the Structure of the Universe. Trafford Publishing
Lancaster B.L. 2004. Approaches to Consciousness: The Marriage of Science and Mysticism. Palgrave Macmillan.
Miranker W 2002. A Quantum State Model of Consciousness. Jour. Of Consciousness Studies 9(3): 3-14(12)
Nakagomi T. 2003. Quantum monadology: a consistent world model for consciousness and physics. Biosystems 69(1): 27-38(12)
Papineau D. 2006. Introducing Consciousness, 2nd Edition. Totem Books
Parrish D. 2006.Nothing I See Means Anything: Quantum Questions, Quantum Answers Sentient Publications
Penrose R. 2007. The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Reprint ed. Vintage
Pylkkanen P.T.I. 2006.Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order Springer
Pylkkanen P. & Vaden T. (Pnyut.). 2001. Dimensions of Conscious Experience. John Benjamins Publishing Co
Rosenblum B. & Kuttner F. 2006. Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness. OUP
Russell P. 2003. From Science to God: A Physicist's Journey into the Mystery of Consciousness. New World Library
Streater R.F. 2007. Lost Causes in and beyond Physics. Springer
Swift H. 2000. Science, Matter and consciousness. Science within Consciousness. The Online Bulletin. http: // www. Swcp.com/~hswift/swc/Essays/Scisprt.html 13 Okt 2005
Turner O.F. 2005. Science of Spirit. Thornton Publishing
Tuszynski J.A. (Pnyut.). 2006. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. Springer
Woolf N.J. & Hameroff S.R. 2001. A quantum approach to visual consciousness . Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5(11): 472-478(7)

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Lampiran 9

Buku KQ, Penyatuan MQ+TEn, Aditetali, Adisimetri, dan Teori Segalanya (TerSaga) dalam Alaf Ini

KQ
Barbour J.B. 2000. The End of Time Phoenix (an Imprint of The Orion Publishing Group Ltd ); New Ed edition
Baumann T.L. 2002. God at the Speed of Light .R.E. Press. Association of Research & Enlig
Deutsch S. 1999. Return of the Ether: When Theory and Reality Collide SciTech Publishing
Genz H. 1998. Nothingness: The Science of Empty Space. Perseus Books Group.
Reissue edition. (Terj.)
Gilmore R. 2003. Once Upon a Universe: Not-so-Grimm tales of Cosmology Springer
Gott J.R. 2001. Time Travel in Einstein's Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel Through Time Houghton Mifflin
Gribbin J. 1999. In Search of the Big Bang: The Life and Death of the Universe Penguin (Non-Classics); New Sub edition Quantum
Houshmand Z. 2004. The New Physics and Cosmology Dialogues with the Dalai Lama OUP, USA
Jones M. 2006. Logical Universe: A Layman's Reality. Inertial Press
Masreliez C.J. 2000. The Expanding Spacetime Theory: A Coherent Worldview from Cosmology to Quantum Nu Inc.
Kafatos M. & Nadeau R. 1999. The Conscious Universe: Parts and Wholes in Physical Reality . 2nd ed. Springer
Lameter C.2006. Divine Action in the Framework of Scientific Thinking: From Quantum Theory to Divine Action.Christianity in the 21st Century
Mindell A. 2000. Quantum Mind: The Edge Between Physics and Psychology. Lao Tse Press
O’Murchu D. 2005. Quantum Theology, Revised Edition: Spiritual Implications of the New Physics. Crossroad Publishing Company; Rev Upd edition
Parker B. & Scoffield L. 2001. Cosmic Time Travel: A Scientific Odyssey Basic Books; New Ed edition
Roy R.R.M.1999. Vedic Physics. Golden Egg Publishing
Wheatley J.D. 2001. The Nature of Consciousness : The Structure of Reality: Theory of Everything Equation Revealed : Scientific Verification and Proof of Logic God Is Research Scientific Press


Tali, Aditetali & Adisimetri, TerSaga
Bagchi B.K. 2000. Supersymmetry In Quantum and Classical Mechanics. Chapman & Hall/CRC
Bick E. & Steffen F.D. (Pnyut.). 2005. Topology and Geometry in Physics.Springer
Binetruy P.M.R. 2006. Supersymmetry. OUP, USA
Breen B. 2000. The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory. Reissue ed. Vintage
Botterill M. 2006. Out of the Darkness: The Theory of Everything. Trafford Publishing
Buchbinder I.L. & Kuzenko I.L.2001. Ideas Methods Supersymmetry Super. Institute of Physics Publishing
Choi K-S. & Kim J.E. 2006. Quarks and Leptons From Orbifolded Superstring . Springer
D’Eath P.D. 2005. Supersymmetric Quantum Cosmology. New Exd ed. CUP, USA
Dine M. 2007. Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model. CUP
Duplij S. , Siegel W. & Bagger J. (Pnyut.). 2003. Concise Encyclopedia of Supersymmetry - And Noncommutative Structures in Mathematics and Physics. Springer
Ferrara S. 2001. Supersymmetry: Lectures and Reprints. WSc
Freed D.S. & Morrison D.R. & Singer I. (Pnyut.). 2006. Quantum Field Theory, Supersymmetry, and Enumerative Geometry . AMS
Galperin A.S. , Ivanov E.A. , Ogievetsky V.I. & Sokatchev E.S. 2007. Harmonic Superspace. New Exd ed. CUP
Gribbin J. 2000. The Search for Superstrings, Symmetry, and the Theory of Everything. Back Bay Books
Jost J. 2001. Bosonic Strings: A Mathematical Treatment. AMS
Kaku M. 2006. Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos. Reprint ed. Anchor
Kane G.L. 2001. Supersymmetry: Unveiling the Ultimate Laws of Nature. New Exd ed. Perseus Books Group
Kane G.L. & Shifman M.A. (Pnyut.). 2001. The Supersymmetric World: The Beginnings of the Theory. WSc
Ketov S.V. 2000. Quantum Non-linear Sigma-Models: From Quantum Field Theory to
Supersymmetry, Conformal Field Theory, Black Holes and Strings. Springer
Kraus L.M. 2005. Hiding in the Mirror: The Mysterious Allure of Extra Dimensions,
from Plato to String Theory and Beyond. Viking Adult
Mohapatra R.N. 2002. Unification and Supersymmetry. 3rd ed. Springer
Polchinski J. 2005. String Theory, Vol. 1 & 2. New Exd. ed. CUP.
Polonsky N. 2001. Supersymmetry: Structure and Phenomena: Extensions of the Standard Model. Springer
Soni S.K. & Singh S. 2001. Supersymmetry: Basics and Concepts. Narosa
Spring Workshop on Superstrings and Related Matters. 2000. Superstrings and Related Matters: Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Workshop on the Abdus Salam Ictp, Trieste, Italy, 22-30 March 1999. WSc
Thorlacius L. & Jonsson L. (Pnyut.). 2000. M-Theory and Quantum Geometry. Springer
Uzan J-P. & Leclercq B. 2007. Our Universe and the Laws of Physics: Variation in Fundamental Constants. Springer Praxis Books
Varadarajan V.S. 2004. Supersymmetry for Mathematicians: An Introduction. AMS
Vilenkin A. & Shellard E.P.S. 2000. Cosmic Strings and Other Topological Defects. New Ed edition. CUP
Woit P. 2006. Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory And the Search for Unity in Physical Law. Basic Books

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